29 May

Chinese space telescope to observe ‘big eaters’

Chinese space telescope to observe ‘big eaters’

Chinese space telescope to observe ‘big eaters’

China’s new space telescope will take into account many mysteries of the universe, including “big eaters” – active nuclei of galaxies to the farthest reaches of the universe. Scientists have discovered that almost all galaxies have a black hole with a mass of several million supermassiform to several billion times that of the Sun in the center. With its strong gravitational pull, supermassive black holes gobble up surrounding gas and dust, Xinhua news agency reported.
When a black hole overflows too much, the excess material becomes two jet stream perpendicular to the accretion disk of the black hole, which is like a greedy with an inflated abdomen. The jet stream and the accretion disk of the black hole generators strong enough supermassive x-rays to billion light-years travel. These galaxies have very bright nuclei – so bright that the central region may be brighter than the remaining galaxy. Scientists call them active galactic nuclei.

The hard X-ray modulation of the telescope (HXMT), developed by Chinese scientists, will observe some active galactic nuclei. “Since the active nuclei of galaxies are very far from Earth, our telescope can only detect the brightest,” said Zhang Shuangnan, senior scientist and director of HXMT key Particle Astrophysics Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASO) . On Monday. The great dining rooms are full of mysteries. Scientists have discovered that the double-jet phenomenon is very common in galaxies with active galactic nuclei, but I do not understand why super-massive black holes can not cover any matter that falls into them.
Black holes are very different black holes of stellar mass, which form when the collapse of very massive stars at the end of their life cycle. Scientists still do not know how to form supermassive black holes and grow, which is a key to understanding the evolution of galaxies. Observing HXMT should help scientists see the central zone near the horizon of events supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies and gather information on the extremely strong gravitational fields, Zhang added.

28 Apr

Internet of Things (IOT): A Vision, Future Directions and Challenges

 

Introduction

The Internet of Things represents a vision in which the Internet extends into the real world embracing every­day objects. Physical items are no longer disconnected from the virtual world, but can be controlled remotely and can act as physical access points to Internet services. An Internet of Things makes computing truly ubiquitous a concept initially put forward by Mark Weiser in the early 1990s. This development is opening up huge opportunities for both the economy and individuals. However, it also involves risks and undoub­tedly represents an immense tech­nical and social challenge.

The Internet of Things vision is grounded in the belief that the steady advances in microelectronics, com­munications and information tech­nology we have witnessed in recent years will continue into the fore­seeable future. In fact, due to their diminishing size, constantly falling price and declining energy consump­tion – processors, communications modules and other electronic com­ponents are being increasingly inte­grated into everyday objects today. ‘Smart’ objects play a key role in the Internet of Things vision, since embedded communication and infor­mation technology would have the potential to revolutionize the utility of these objects. Using sensors, they are able to perceive their context, and via built-in networking capabilities they would be able to communicate with each other, access Internet services and interact with people. ‘Digitally upgrading’ conventional object in this way enhances their physical function by adding the capabilities of digital objects, thus generating substantial added value. Forerunners of this development are already apparent today—more and more devices such as sewing machi­nes, exercise bikes, electric toothbru­shes, washing machines, electricity meters and photocopiers a re’being
‘computerized’ and equipped with network interfaces.

In other application domains, Internet connectivity of everyday objects can be used to remotely deter­mine their state so that information systems can collect up-to-date infor­mation on physical objects and processes. This enables many aspects

of the real world to be ‘observed’ at a previously unattained level of detail and at negligible cost. This would not only allow for a better understanding of the underlying processes, but also far more efficient control and mana­gement . The ability to react to events in the physical world in an automatic, rapid and informed manner not only

Manufacturing Quick response to fluctuations in demand; maximized operational efficiency, safety and reliability, using smart sensors and digital control systems. Enhanced agility and flexibility, reduced energy consumption and carbon footprint.
Retail Stock-out prevention through connected and intelligent supply chains. Ability to predict consumer behaviour and trends, using data from video surveillance cameras, social media, internet and mobile device usage.
Supply Chain Real-time tracking of parts and raw materials, which Reduced working capital requirements, improved efficie-
helps organisations preempt problems, address demand fluctuations and efficiently manage all stages of manu­facturing. ncies and avoidance of dis­ruptions in manufacturing.
Infrastructure Smart lighting, water, power, fire, cooling, alarms and structural health systems. Environmental benefits and significant cost savings with better utilization of resources and preventive maintenance of critical systems.
Oil and Gas Smart components. Reduced operating casts and fuel consumption.
Insurance Innovative services such as pay-as-you-go insurance. Significant cost savings for both insurers and consumers.
Utilities Smart grids and meters. More responsive and reliable services; significant cost savings for both utilities and consumers resulting from demand-based and dynamic pricing features.
Source : Ericsson, M2M Magazine 2013, Zebra Consulting/Forester Research, IBM, McKinsey & Co. Data informed, ZDNet.

opens up new opportunities for deal­ing with complex or critical situa­tions, but also enables a wide variety of business processes to be optimized. The real-time interpretation of data from the physical world will most likely lead to the introduction of various novel business services and may deliver substantial economic and social benefits. The use of the word ‘Internet’ in the catchy term ‘Internet of Things’ which stands for the vision outlined above can be seen as either simply a metaphor—in the same way that people use the Web today, things will soon also communicate with each other, use services, provide data and thus generate added value—or it can be interpreted in a stricter tech­nical sense, postulating that an IP protocol stack will be used by smart things (or at least by the ‘proxies’, their representatives on the network).

Getting IoT Ready

Preparing the lowest layers of technology for the horizontal nature of the IoT requires manufacturers to deliver on the most fundamental challenges, including:

  • Connectivity : There will not be one connectivity standard that ‘wins’ over the others. There will be a wide variety of wired and wireless standards as well as proprietary implementations used to connect the things in the IoT. The challenge is getting the connectivity standards to talk to one another with one common worldwide data currency.
  • Power Management : More

things within the IoT will be battery powered or use energy harvesting to be more portable and self-sustaining. Line- powered equipment will need to be more energy efficient. The challenge is making it easy to add power management to these devices and equipment. Wireless charging will incorporate con­nectivity with charge manage­ment.

  • Security : With the amount of data being sent within the IoT, security is a must. Built-in hard­ware security and use of existing connectivity security protocols is essential to secure the IoT. Another challenge is simply educating consumers to use the security that is integrated into their devices.
  • Complexity : Manufacturers are looking to add connectivity to devices and equipment that has never been connected before to become part of the IoT. Ease of design and development is essential to get more things con­nected especially when typical RF programming is complex. Additionally, the average con­sumer needs to be able to set up and use their devices without a technical background.
  • Rapid Evolution : The IoT is constantly changing and evolv­ing. More devices are being added every day and the indus­try is still in its nascent stage. The challenge facing the industry is the unknown devices, unknown applications, unknown use cases. Given this, there needs to be flexibility in all facets of deve­lopment. Processors and micro­controllers that range from 16- 1500 MEIz to address the full spectrum of applications from a microcontroller (MCU) in a small, energy-harvested wireless sensor node to high-performance, multi-core processors for IoT infrastructure. A wide variety of wired and wireless connectivity technologies are needed to meet the various needs of the market. Last, a wide selection of sensors, mixed-signal and power-mana­gement technologies are required to provide the user interface to the IoT and energy-friendly designs

Compelling Benefits of IoT

IoT offers compelling business

benefits and value that organizations

cannot afford to ignore including cost

savings, improved revenues and

opportunities to innovate.

  • Cost Savings : Costs can be reduced through improved asset utilization, process efficiencies and productivity. Customers and organizations can benefit from improved asset utilization (g smart meters that eliminate manual meter readings) and service improvements (e.g., remote monitoring of patients in clinical settings). General Electric has estimated that if intelligent machines and analytics caused even a tiny reduction in fuel, capital expenditures and ineffi­ciencies, it would result in billions of dollars in cost savings.
  • Improved Asset Utilization

With improved tracking of asse: (machinery, equipment, took etc.) using sensors and connect vity, businesses can benefit fror real-time insights and visibility into their assets and suppL chains. For instance, they coul: more easily locate assets and rur preventive maintenance on crit- cal pieces of infrastructure an; machinery to improve through put and utilization.

  • Efficient Processes : Organiza­tions can use real-time opera­tional insights to make smarter business decisions and reduct operating costs. They can use real-time data from sensors an: actuators to monitor and improve process efficiency, reduce energ. costs and minimize human inter­vention.
  • Improved Productivity : Pro­ductivity is a critical parameter that affects the profitability or any organization. IoT improver organizational productivity h offering employees just-in-tirr training, reducing the mismatc: of required available skill: and improving labour efficiency

Future of IoT

The acceleration of IoT from loft concept to reality is predicated or the projected exponential growth c: smart devices and the confluence or low-cost infrastructure, connectivity and data. Declining device costs widespread and pervasive connecti­vity, and an ever-increasing focus or operational efficiency and producti­vity is leading to wide deployment or IoT splutions. In a 2012 survey b Zebra Consulting and Forester, only 15% of organizations had an IoT solution in place, but more than hah (53%) had plans to implement one ir. the next two years, and an additional 14% planned to implement in the next two to five years. Roughly 21’c of respondents from the transporta­tion and logistics sector indicated tha: an IoT solution was already in place.

  • Billions of Smart Devices are Becoming Connected : The num­ber of connected smart devices is exploding, with 50 billion devi­ces possible by 2020. Similarly machine-to-machine (M2M connections which are a key pan of the fabric of IoT are also or

PD/April/2016/98         “Hard work without talent is a shame, but talent without hard work is a tragedy.”

01 Apr

SPECIAL ON to ^INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

 

Tentative Calendar of Examinations for CWE-VI for Participating Organizations

(1) PSBs—CWE PO/MT-VI and CWE Clerk-VI

The tentative dates are as follows :

CWE PO/MT-VI Preliminary 16.10.2016, 22.10.2016 and
Examination 23.10.2016
Main Examination 20.11.2016
CWE Clerk-VI Preliminary 26.11.2016,27.11.2016,
Examination 03.12.2016 and 4.12.2016
Main Examination 31.12.2017 and 1.1.2017
(2) PSBs—CWE Specialist-VI
There will be singlt examination and the tentative dates are as follows :
CWE Specialist-VI Single Examination 28.1.2017 and 29.1.2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following media is not used in wireless communi­cation ?
  • Radio waves
  • Microwaves
  • Satellites
  • Macrowaves
  1. The wired communication chan­nel is also known as—
  • Guided medium
  • Guided media
  • Wired media
  • All of the above
  1. Which type of media is used in cables of television transmission ?
  • Twisted pair
  • Coaxial cable
  • Optical fibre
  • Satellite
  1. The set of rules, that coordinates with the exchange of informa­tion, is called—
  • Protocol
  • Software
  • Modem
  • URL
  1. Which type of protocol is used by www to transmit data ?
  • HTTP
  • IP
  • TCP
  • UDP
  1. The measure of the amount of information that can be trans­mitted in a fixed period of time is called—
  • Band
  • Bandwidth
  • Rate
  • Speed
  1. What is the unit of the rate of communication of data on the channel ?
  • pbs
  • bbs
  • bsp
  • bps . ‘
  1. Which type of multimedia is used in digital libraries and video mail ?
  • Integrated multimedia
  • Interactive multimedia
  • Linear multimedia
  • Non-linear multimedia
  1. The quality of service provided by narrow band ISDN is—
  • Poor
  • Good
  • Better
  • Worst
  1. Which of the following cannot be regarded as multimedia ?
  • A type of slide programme
  • A CD-ROM with text and visuals
  • Microfilm
  • A wavepage
  1. The layers of OSI reference model are also called—
  • Modules
  • Models
  • Labels
  • Levels
  1. In how many ways can the swit­ching system be established ?
  • Two
  • Four
  • Three
  • Five
  1. What is the name of the software which is an augmented version of CDS/ISIS ?
  • Soul
  • Sanjay
  • Liberator
  • Librarian
  1. Which type of protocol is used by interface for Public Data Network (PDN) ?
  • 25
  • 12
  • 13
  • 20
  1. What is used to support higher data rates in broadband ISDN ?
  • Twisted pair
  • Coaxial cable
  • Insulated cable
  • Optical fibre cable
  1. OSI reference model was imple­mented by—
  • ISO
  • OSI
  • UNESCO
  • ALA
  1. DELNET, ADINET, PUNET, … are the examples of—

(A)    LANs        (B)    MANs

(C)    WANs       (D)    ALA

  1. What type of protocol TCP is ?
  • Reliable
  • Unreliable
  • Good
  • Better
  1. What name is given to the network which covers the area of a state, region, nation or even the whole world ?

(A)‘    LAN         (B)    MAN

(C)    WAN         D)     IN

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the software ?
  • Reliability
  • Efficiency
  • Functionality
  • Suitability

Test Your Knowledge

Answers

1. (D) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (A) 5- (D)
6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (A) 9. (C) 10. (A)
11. (A) 12. (D) 13. (A) 14. (A) 15. (C)
16. (B) 17. (B) 18. (B) 19. (A) 20. (C)
21. (D) 22. (D) 23. (B) 24. (B) 25. (C)
26. (A) 27. (A) 28. (D) 29. (C) 30. (B)
31. (A) 32. (A) 33. (A) 34. (C) 35. (C)
P.Darpan

 

 

  • Pakistan talks Kashmir, India seeks access to ‘abducted naval officer Jadhav.

India also seeks proper trial of the alleged perpetrators o the Mumbai attacks.

Foreign Secretaries level talks between India anc Pakistan were held in New Delhi on April 26, 2016. Indi used its first high-level contact with Pakistan since th January 2 attack on the Pathankot airbase to send out clear message that Pakistan must crack down on terro groups operating from* its soil instead of being in ‘denial’ on terrorism.

During talks with his Pakistani counterpart, Aizaz Ahmad Chaudhary,

India’s foreign secre­tary S. Jaishankar also sought ‘early and visible progress’ in Pakistan probe Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar and his] into the Pathankot Pakistani counterpart Aizaz Ahmad attack and the trial of Chaudhary at South Block in New]

,i „              ,            , Delhi on April 26,2016.

the alleged perpetra­tors of the Mumbai attacks.

Bilateral contact between the two countries were stalled after the Pathankot airbase attack, blamed on the Jaishe-Mohammed (JeM) by India. Seven security person­nel of India were killed in the attack.

PM Christens the system NAVIC, after mariners and
fishermen.

India’s own navigational system, the set-up for which was completed on April 28, 2016 with the launch of the seventh and final satellite, will be called NAVIC (Naviga­tion with Indian Constellation). It was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi after the launch.

The seventh and final satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, the IRNSS-1G, was launched into a sub-geosynchronous transfer orbit with a perigee (nearest point to the earth) of 284 km and an apogee (farthest point to the earth) of 20, 657 km. The satellite was launched on board the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) which took off from the Sriharikota launch pad at 12-50 p.m. on April 28, 2016.

With this launch, the IRNSS constellation of seven satellites is now complete. This will allow the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to focus on the process of designing front end chips which will receive the navigational signals sent out by the satellites. The system will be similar to the Global Positioning System (GPS) operated by the United States with 24 satellites and the Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou systems of Russia, Europe and China respectively.’1