08 May

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28 Apr

Internet of Things (IOT): A Vision, Future Directions and Challenges



The Internet of Things represents a vision in which the Internet extends into the real world embracing every­day objects. Physical items are no longer disconnected from the virtual world, but can be controlled remotely and can act as physical access points to Internet services. An Internet of Things makes computing truly ubiquitous a concept initially put forward by Mark Weiser in the early 1990s. This development is opening up huge opportunities for both the economy and individuals. However, it also involves risks and undoub­tedly represents an immense tech­nical and social challenge.

The Internet of Things vision is grounded in the belief that the steady advances in microelectronics, com­munications and information tech­nology we have witnessed in recent years will continue into the fore­seeable future. In fact, due to their diminishing size, constantly falling price and declining energy consump­tion – processors, communications modules and other electronic com­ponents are being increasingly inte­grated into everyday objects today. ‘Smart’ objects play a key role in the Internet of Things vision, since embedded communication and infor­mation technology would have the potential to revolutionize the utility of these objects. Using sensors, they are able to perceive their context, and via built-in networking capabilities they would be able to communicate with each other, access Internet services and interact with people. ‘Digitally upgrading’ conventional object in this way enhances their physical function by adding the capabilities of digital objects, thus generating substantial added value. Forerunners of this development are already apparent today—more and more devices such as sewing machi­nes, exercise bikes, electric toothbru­shes, washing machines, electricity meters and photocopiers a re’being
‘computerized’ and equipped with network interfaces.

In other application domains, Internet connectivity of everyday objects can be used to remotely deter­mine their state so that information systems can collect up-to-date infor­mation on physical objects and processes. This enables many aspects

of the real world to be ‘observed’ at a previously unattained level of detail and at negligible cost. This would not only allow for a better understanding of the underlying processes, but also far more efficient control and mana­gement . The ability to react to events in the physical world in an automatic, rapid and informed manner not only

Manufacturing Quick response to fluctuations in demand; maximized operational efficiency, safety and reliability, using smart sensors and digital control systems. Enhanced agility and flexibility, reduced energy consumption and carbon footprint.
Retail Stock-out prevention through connected and intelligent supply chains. Ability to predict consumer behaviour and trends, using data from video surveillance cameras, social media, internet and mobile device usage.
Supply Chain Real-time tracking of parts and raw materials, which Reduced working capital requirements, improved efficie-
helps organisations preempt problems, address demand fluctuations and efficiently manage all stages of manu­facturing. ncies and avoidance of dis­ruptions in manufacturing.
Infrastructure Smart lighting, water, power, fire, cooling, alarms and structural health systems. Environmental benefits and significant cost savings with better utilization of resources and preventive maintenance of critical systems.
Oil and Gas Smart components. Reduced operating casts and fuel consumption.
Insurance Innovative services such as pay-as-you-go insurance. Significant cost savings for both insurers and consumers.
Utilities Smart grids and meters. More responsive and reliable services; significant cost savings for both utilities and consumers resulting from demand-based and dynamic pricing features.
Source : Ericsson, M2M Magazine 2013, Zebra Consulting/Forester Research, IBM, McKinsey & Co. Data informed, ZDNet.

opens up new opportunities for deal­ing with complex or critical situa­tions, but also enables a wide variety of business processes to be optimized. The real-time interpretation of data from the physical world will most likely lead to the introduction of various novel business services and may deliver substantial economic and social benefits. The use of the word ‘Internet’ in the catchy term ‘Internet of Things’ which stands for the vision outlined above can be seen as either simply a metaphor—in the same way that people use the Web today, things will soon also communicate with each other, use services, provide data and thus generate added value—or it can be interpreted in a stricter tech­nical sense, postulating that an IP protocol stack will be used by smart things (or at least by the ‘proxies’, their representatives on the network).

Getting IoT Ready

Preparing the lowest layers of technology for the horizontal nature of the IoT requires manufacturers to deliver on the most fundamental challenges, including:

  • Connectivity : There will not be one connectivity standard that ‘wins’ over the others. There will be a wide variety of wired and wireless standards as well as proprietary implementations used to connect the things in the IoT. The challenge is getting the connectivity standards to talk to one another with one common worldwide data currency.
  • Power Management : More

things within the IoT will be battery powered or use energy harvesting to be more portable and self-sustaining. Line- powered equipment will need to be more energy efficient. The challenge is making it easy to add power management to these devices and equipment. Wireless charging will incorporate con­nectivity with charge manage­ment.

  • Security : With the amount of data being sent within the IoT, security is a must. Built-in hard­ware security and use of existing connectivity security protocols is essential to secure the IoT. Another challenge is simply educating consumers to use the security that is integrated into their devices.
  • Complexity : Manufacturers are looking to add connectivity to devices and equipment that has never been connected before to become part of the IoT. Ease of design and development is essential to get more things con­nected especially when typical RF programming is complex. Additionally, the average con­sumer needs to be able to set up and use their devices without a technical background.
  • Rapid Evolution : The IoT is constantly changing and evolv­ing. More devices are being added every day and the indus­try is still in its nascent stage. The challenge facing the industry is the unknown devices, unknown applications, unknown use cases. Given this, there needs to be flexibility in all facets of deve­lopment. Processors and micro­controllers that range from 16- 1500 MEIz to address the full spectrum of applications from a microcontroller (MCU) in a small, energy-harvested wireless sensor node to high-performance, multi-core processors for IoT infrastructure. A wide variety of wired and wireless connectivity technologies are needed to meet the various needs of the market. Last, a wide selection of sensors, mixed-signal and power-mana­gement technologies are required to provide the user interface to the IoT and energy-friendly designs

Compelling Benefits of IoT

IoT offers compelling business

benefits and value that organizations

cannot afford to ignore including cost

savings, improved revenues and

opportunities to innovate.

  • Cost Savings : Costs can be reduced through improved asset utilization, process efficiencies and productivity. Customers and organizations can benefit from improved asset utilization (g smart meters that eliminate manual meter readings) and service improvements (e.g., remote monitoring of patients in clinical settings). General Electric has estimated that if intelligent machines and analytics caused even a tiny reduction in fuel, capital expenditures and ineffi­ciencies, it would result in billions of dollars in cost savings.
  • Improved Asset Utilization

With improved tracking of asse: (machinery, equipment, took etc.) using sensors and connect vity, businesses can benefit fror real-time insights and visibility into their assets and suppL chains. For instance, they coul: more easily locate assets and rur preventive maintenance on crit- cal pieces of infrastructure an; machinery to improve through put and utilization.

  • Efficient Processes : Organiza­tions can use real-time opera­tional insights to make smarter business decisions and reduct operating costs. They can use real-time data from sensors an: actuators to monitor and improve process efficiency, reduce energ. costs and minimize human inter­vention.
  • Improved Productivity : Pro­ductivity is a critical parameter that affects the profitability or any organization. IoT improver organizational productivity h offering employees just-in-tirr training, reducing the mismatc: of required available skill: and improving labour efficiency

Future of IoT

The acceleration of IoT from loft concept to reality is predicated or the projected exponential growth c: smart devices and the confluence or low-cost infrastructure, connectivity and data. Declining device costs widespread and pervasive connecti­vity, and an ever-increasing focus or operational efficiency and producti­vity is leading to wide deployment or IoT splutions. In a 2012 survey b Zebra Consulting and Forester, only 15% of organizations had an IoT solution in place, but more than hah (53%) had plans to implement one ir. the next two years, and an additional 14% planned to implement in the next two to five years. Roughly 21’c of respondents from the transporta­tion and logistics sector indicated tha: an IoT solution was already in place.

  • Billions of Smart Devices are Becoming Connected : The num­ber of connected smart devices is exploding, with 50 billion devi­ces possible by 2020. Similarly machine-to-machine (M2M connections which are a key pan of the fabric of IoT are also or

PD/April/2016/98         “Hard work without talent is a shame, but talent without hard work is a tragedy.”

28 Apr

Industrial Growth in India : The Divergent Views

The divergent views emerged regarding the growth of industrial sector in India. Industrial growth measured by the Central Statistics Office always differs with the statistics revealed by Index of Industrial Production (IIP) and Annual Survey of Industries. Thus, for a common man, it is extremely difficult to reach at a meaningful conclusion. Introduction of new methodology for the estimation of national income has made the situation’ more complex and complicated. The controversy over the new GDP series refuses to die down. Going by the latest estimates, the non-farm sector grew an impressive 9.2 per cent in the third quarter of 2015-16. One would be forgiven for feeling confused, but if the economy was truly growing at such breathtaking speed, what explains the growing clamour for a fiscal stimulus which is being demanded by the chieftains of industrial sector. The confusion over the numbers is because of the growing chasm between the Central Statistical Office’s GDP estimates and other key economic indicators which suggest sluggish growth at best. The greatest disconnect lies in the estimates of industrial growth.

According to CSO, industry grew at a scorching pace of 8-9 per cent in the third quarter (October to December 2015), with manufacturing sector clocking 12-6 per cent growth. In comparison, the index of Industrial Production (IIP) grew a mere 1-5 per cent, with manufacturing sector registering growth of only 0-9 per cent. Both of these figures are nowhere near the GDP number. The diver­gence between the two estimates is truly confounding. To be fair, there are many reasons for the divergent trends—

  • IIP measures volume growth, while GDP measures growth in value added.
  • The base years of the two indicators are different. The base year for GDP estimates is 2011-12, while the base year for IIP is 2004-05.
  • Regarding the estimation of GDP the manufacturing sector has two components. The first component is the corporate data which is based on advanced filing of companies in stock exchanges, while the second non-corporate component is based on IIP, and a weighted average of that is considered. Companies account for 65 per cent of manufacturing.
  • Annual Survey of Industries data, however, does not capture unregistered entities and hence there were some differences in the numbers between the GDP data and ASI data. Otherwise, ASI is a compre­hensive measure of industrial growth as it covers both registered small and registered medium indus­tries where all units employing at least 10 workers and using power, or 20 workers and not using power are covered.
  • The CSO uses the Ministry of Corporate Affairs 21 database and the ASI estimates to arrive at estimate of gross value added.
  • The ASI data comes with a lag of two years whih GDP estimates are on quarterly basis.

But considering the backdrop of growing concerns o: hollowing out of domestic manufacturing, the GD” numbers are extraordinarily high.

  • The IIP is a pure physical ‘volume’-based measure csr production. It does not adequately reflect the ‘value that is added by virtue of quality improvements higher production efficiencies, or marketing an: branding innovations.
  • The new series of national accounts is seen as providing more robust estimates of gross value addition happening, taking into account the value cc output less the value of inputs used in a particular production process. On the other hand, the IIP, whic: is simply a production volume indicator, might be understating the extent of value-added growth ir manufacturing.

CONFOUNDING SIGNS                      % growth •Note: Gross value added has been estimated on the basis of quarterly results of ove- 1000 companies

Source: Mospi, Capitaline                                            Compiled by BS Research Bures.

In order to arrive at a comparable estimate of thr first component i.e, the corporate sector’s growth per­formance, Business Standard estimated gross value adder for over 1,000 companies. Gross Value Added (GVA : estimated as profits minus interest payments pi_ depreciation and compensation to employees.

According to this estimate, GVA grew 3.8 per cerr over the April to December 2015 period. Value added ha grown even though sales have gone down because prot:- have grown due to the declining input (commodity) cos: and higher wages and depreciation. By comparison, CSC *




‘The difference between ordinary and extraordinary is that little extra.”

22 Apr

India’s Foreign Trade Policy of 2015-2020

With an aim to make India a (x) significant partner in global trade by 2020, the government announced a five-year new Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) in April 2015, which may be integrated with ‘Make in India1, ‘Digital India’ and ‘Skills India initiatives’. The FTP has the objectives of boosting India’s exports; making exports an engine of economic growth and employment generation. In order to achieve these objectives, a mix of various policy measures is required which include number of changes in the area of fiscal policy, institutional design, rationalisation of procedures, diversification of export basket and penetration into new markets for enhancing trade prospects in the global market. All this requires improved export infrastructure. The following are the salient features of Foreign Trade Policy of 2015-2020 (FTP):

  • the policy is made product-wise and location-wise;
  • the policy includes long and medium term strategy to enhance trade competitiveness;
  • introduction of Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) and Services Exports from India Scheme (SEIS) to boost outward shipments;
  • several incentives for exporters and units in the Special Econo­mic Zones;
  • export promotion mission to take on board State Govern­ments;
  • unlike annual reviews, FTP will be reviewed after two-and-half years;
  • higher level of support for export of defence, farm pro­duce, and eco-friendly products;
  • give a push to services exports from sectors like entertainment, logistics, architecture, account­ing and health care;
  • simplification of procedures/ processes, digitisation and e- govemance;



facilitating and encouraging export of dual use items (SCOMET) which include export of special chemicals, organisms, materials, equipment and tech­nologies;

  • trade facilitation and ease of doing business; and
  • online inter-ministerial consul­tations.

Analysis of Policy

The policy provides instruments to accelerate export of goods and services and laid out the framework and the logic that will support the objective of doubling the annual export of goods and services to $ 900 billion in next five years of 2015-20. The aim is to enhance India’s share in world exports from 2 per cent to 3.5 per cent by 2020. The focus is on sustaining services exports and increasing manufacturing exports side by side making efforts to improve the ease of doing business. The FTP seems to be guided by the following four concerns:

  • keeping checks on how much money goes out on account of export incentives given the fiscal constraints;
  • WTO obligations to phase out export subsidies;
  • linking the FTP to the ‘Make in India’ initiative; and
  • improving free trade agreements (FTAs) for furthering exports.

The important positive aspects of the policy are :

  1. The setting up of a number of institutions to go forward and strengthening world trade. Following to the WTO agreement on trade facilitation, the setting up of National Committee on Trade Facilitation will help in the implementation of WTO’s com­mitments. The aim is to simplify customs procedure to reduce transactions cost for traders. In this area the policy is expected to

“No one ever drowned in sweat.”


coordinate several measures being taken by various ministries and departments to simplify administrative procedures and reduce transaction costs.

  1. Proposes institutions for involv­ing State Governments in export promotion policy formulation.
  2. The boost to e-commerce and services exports is well-timed and takes into account the shift in the business paradigm. Incen­tives to e-commerce companies exporting products from sectors with potential for creating jobs. The policy addresses markets and products strategies. It out­lines the measures required for trade promotion including infra­structure development and over­all trade ecosystem including electronic clearances on a 24×7 basis.
  3. The introduction of a simplified import duty exemption certifi­cate for all exports under the two schemes is expected to make incentives more transparent and non-discretionary. The quantum of export subsidies is lower than the earlier ones.
  4. Introduced a concept of import appraisal mechanism which will be done on a quarterly basis by the department of commerce.
  5. The schemes have been devised for further extending tax breaks to defence, pharma and environ­ment-friendly exports.
  6. The reduction in the specific export obligation under the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme. In this scheme, exporters are allowed to import capital goods without duty, subject to their fulfilling an export obligation equivalent to 90 per cent of the total value of imports over a period of five years. Such export obligation has now been reduced to 75 per cent.
  7. The five-year programme focus­ing on the ease of doing business
01 Apr



Tentative Calendar of Examinations for CWE-VI for Participating Organizations

(1) PSBs—CWE PO/MT-VI and CWE Clerk-VI

The tentative dates are as follows :

CWE PO/MT-VI Preliminary 16.10.2016, 22.10.2016 and
Examination 23.10.2016
Main Examination 20.11.2016
CWE Clerk-VI Preliminary 26.11.2016,27.11.2016,
Examination 03.12.2016 and 4.12.2016
Main Examination 31.12.2017 and 1.1.2017
(2) PSBs—CWE Specialist-VI
There will be singlt examination and the tentative dates are as follows :
CWE Specialist-VI Single Examination 28.1.2017 and 29.1.2017







  1. Which of the following media is not used in wireless communi­cation ?
  • Radio waves
  • Microwaves
  • Satellites
  • Macrowaves
  1. The wired communication chan­nel is also known as—
  • Guided medium
  • Guided media
  • Wired media
  • All of the above
  1. Which type of media is used in cables of television transmission ?
  • Twisted pair
  • Coaxial cable
  • Optical fibre
  • Satellite
  1. The set of rules, that coordinates with the exchange of informa­tion, is called—
  • Protocol
  • Software
  • Modem
  • URL
  1. Which type of protocol is used by www to transmit data ?
  • HTTP
  • IP
  • TCP
  • UDP
  1. The measure of the amount of information that can be trans­mitted in a fixed period of time is called—
  • Band
  • Bandwidth
  • Rate
  • Speed
  1. What is the unit of the rate of communication of data on the channel ?
  • pbs
  • bbs
  • bsp
  • bps . ‘
  1. Which type of multimedia is used in digital libraries and video mail ?
  • Integrated multimedia
  • Interactive multimedia
  • Linear multimedia
  • Non-linear multimedia
  1. The quality of service provided by narrow band ISDN is—
  • Poor
  • Good
  • Better
  • Worst
  1. Which of the following cannot be regarded as multimedia ?
  • A type of slide programme
  • A CD-ROM with text and visuals
  • Microfilm
  • A wavepage
  1. The layers of OSI reference model are also called—
  • Modules
  • Models
  • Labels
  • Levels
  1. In how many ways can the swit­ching system be established ?
  • Two
  • Four
  • Three
  • Five
  1. What is the name of the software which is an augmented version of CDS/ISIS ?
  • Soul
  • Sanjay
  • Liberator
  • Librarian
  1. Which type of protocol is used by interface for Public Data Network (PDN) ?
  • 25
  • 12
  • 13
  • 20
  1. What is used to support higher data rates in broadband ISDN ?
  • Twisted pair
  • Coaxial cable
  • Insulated cable
  • Optical fibre cable
  1. OSI reference model was imple­mented by—
  • ISO
  • OSI
  • ALA
  1. DELNET, ADINET, PUNET, … are the examples of—

(A)    LANs        (B)    MANs

(C)    WANs       (D)    ALA

  1. What type of protocol TCP is ?
  • Reliable
  • Unreliable
  • Good
  • Better
  1. What name is given to the network which covers the area of a state, region, nation or even the whole world ?

(A)‘    LAN         (B)    MAN

(C)    WAN         D)     IN

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the software ?
  • Reliability
  • Efficiency
  • Functionality
  • Suitability

Test Your Knowledge


1. (D) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (A) 5- (D)
6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (A) 9. (C) 10. (A)
11. (A) 12. (D) 13. (A) 14. (A) 15. (C)
16. (B) 17. (B) 18. (B) 19. (A) 20. (C)
21. (D) 22. (D) 23. (B) 24. (B) 25. (C)
26. (A) 27. (A) 28. (D) 29. (C) 30. (B)
31. (A) 32. (A) 33. (A) 34. (C) 35. (C)



  • Pakistan talks Kashmir, India seeks access to ‘abducted naval officer Jadhav.

India also seeks proper trial of the alleged perpetrators o the Mumbai attacks.

Foreign Secretaries level talks between India anc Pakistan were held in New Delhi on April 26, 2016. Indi used its first high-level contact with Pakistan since th January 2 attack on the Pathankot airbase to send out clear message that Pakistan must crack down on terro groups operating from* its soil instead of being in ‘denial’ on terrorism.

During talks with his Pakistani counterpart, Aizaz Ahmad Chaudhary,

India’s foreign secre­tary S. Jaishankar also sought ‘early and visible progress’ in Pakistan probe Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar and his] into the Pathankot Pakistani counterpart Aizaz Ahmad attack and the trial of Chaudhary at South Block in New]

,i „              ,            , Delhi on April 26,2016.

the alleged perpetra­tors of the Mumbai attacks.

Bilateral contact between the two countries were stalled after the Pathankot airbase attack, blamed on the Jaishe-Mohammed (JeM) by India. Seven security person­nel of India were killed in the attack.

PM Christens the system NAVIC, after mariners and

India’s own navigational system, the set-up for which was completed on April 28, 2016 with the launch of the seventh and final satellite, will be called NAVIC (Naviga­tion with Indian Constellation). It was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi after the launch.

The seventh and final satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, the IRNSS-1G, was launched into a sub-geosynchronous transfer orbit with a perigee (nearest point to the earth) of 284 km and an apogee (farthest point to the earth) of 20, 657 km. The satellite was launched on board the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) which took off from the Sriharikota launch pad at 12-50 p.m. on April 28, 2016.

With this launch, the IRNSS constellation of seven satellites is now complete. This will allow the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to focus on the process of designing front end chips which will receive the navigational signals sent out by the satellites. The system will be similar to the Global Positioning System (GPS) operated by the United States with 24 satellites and the Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou systems of Russia, Europe and China respectively.’1